Sanatorium treatment of bronchial asthma

Sanatorium treatment of bronchial asthma

Sanatorium treatment is one of the stages of treatment and prevention of bronchial asthma. Climatotherapy (air and sun baths, sea bathing), which uses various climatic and geographical zones: the North Caucasus (Kislovodsk), the highlands (Bakuriani, Shovi, Elbrus region), and the South-East and South Coast of Crimea, is most widely used. Sanatorium-resort treatment is recommended for pre-asthma in the phase of remission, prolonged exacerbation of the underlying disease (chronic bronchitis or pneumonia), infectious-allergic and atopic bronchial asthma with mild and moderate severity in the phase of remission or mild exacerbation with pulmonary insufficiency no higher than II degree.

Recently, speleotherapy based on salt mines (Solotvino settlement, Transcarpathian region) has been used for the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma, the microclimate of which is characterized by the following parameters: air temperature 23-24 ° C, relative humidity 20-60%, highly dispersed aerosol of sodium chloride 0.5 -5 mg / m3, oxygen content of 20.7% by volume, carbon dioxide – 0.03, atmospheric pressure 750-775 mm Hg. Art., the absence of pathogenic microorganisms and allergens, the noise level is not more than 25 dB. Speleotherapy consists in the systematic stay of the patient in the underground department (session time 2-12 hours depending on the condition of the patients, the average course is 30 days). Indications for speleotherapy: predastma, atopic and infectious bronchial asthma of mild and moderate course, pulmonary insufficiency of I-II degree and pulmonary-cardiac I, stage I bronchial asthma with concomitant chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in the remission phase.
The microclimate of karst caves (Tskhaltubo, Novy Afon) is also used to treat bronchial asthma, the main therapeutic factors of which are a relatively high degree of ionization, highly dispersed aerosol, relatively low temperature and humidity, a high degree of air purity, and the absence of pathogenic microorganisms.

Contraindications to spa treatment: predastma and bronchial asthma in the phase of severe exacerbation; severe bronchial asthma, frequent exacerbations and asthmatic conditions; stage II bronchial asthma; active inflammatory process in the bronchopulmonary system, regardless of the severity of the disease; severe concomitant; diseases. Elderly patients, as well as people with concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular system, are recommended treatment in local sanatoriums. When referring patients to resorts during the transition period (spring, autumn), the contrast of the climate of the place of residence and resort area, as well as the possibility of mechanisms for compensating the cardiovascular system, should be taken into account.

Treatment and prophylactic measures for bronchial asthma include a set of measures: elimination of the harmful effects of nonspecific irritants; timely and adequate treatment of the infectious-inflammatory process in the bronchopulmonary system; improvement of bronchial drainage (timely intake of expectorants, mucolytic drugs, rational use of bronchodilators, postural drainage, vibration massage) and pulmonary ventilation; elimination of hypoxemia; rehabilitation of extrapulmonary foci of chronic infection; restoration of nasal breathing; physiotherapy courses (two to three times a year); Exercise therapy (“respiratory”, “drainage”), hardening procedures; dynamic adequate glucocorticosteroid therapy, corresponding to changes in the patient’s condition and his environment; rational use of antihistamines, sedatives, antihypertensives, adrenergic drugs Rstimulating. Prevention of severe asthma attacks is consistent with asthmatic status. 

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