Ischemic

Ischemic

Ischemic
Etiology
ischemic IMC due to atherosclerotic plaque

Circulatory disturbance ischemic is most often caused by atherosclerosis. Its development can provoke strong excitement (stress, etc.) or excessive physical activity. May occur during nighttime sleep or immediately after waking. Often accompanies pre-infarction or myocardial infarction.

Symptoms
May occur suddenly or increase gradually. They are manifested in the form of headaches, hemiparesis on the side opposite the lesion. Violation of the coordination of movement, as well as visual and speech disorders.

Pathogenesis
An ischemic disorder occurs when an insufficient amount of blood is supplied to a separate area of ​​the brain. In this case, a focus of hypoxia, in which necrotic formations develop. This process is accompanied by a violation of the basic brain functions.

Hemorrhagic

Hemorrhagic

Etiology

Hemorrhage (hemorrhagic disorder of blood flow) can be caused by various arterial hypertension, vascular aneurysms, congenital angiomas, etc.

Pathogenesis

As a result of the increase in arterial pressure, the plasma and proteins in it are released, which leads to plasma saturation of the walls of the vessels, causing their destruction. A peculiar hyaline-like specific substance is deposited on the vascular walls (a protein that resembles cartilage in its structure), which leads to the development of hyalinosis. The vessels resemble glass tubes, lose their elasticity and the ability to retain blood pressure. In addition, the permeability of the vascular wall is increased and the blood can freely pass through it, impregnating nerve fibers (diapedesis bleeding). The result of such a transformation can be the formation of microaneurysms and rupture of the vessel with hemorrhage and the ingress of blood into the white brain substance. Thus, hemorrhage occurs as a result of:

Plasmatic impregnation of the walls of vessels of the white brain substance or visual tubercles;

Diapedesis bleeding;

The formation of microaneurysms.

Hemorrhage in the acute period is characterized by the development of hematomas with wedging and deformation of the brainstem into the tentorial opening. At the same time, the brain swells and extensive swelling develops. There are secondary hemorrhages, smaller.

Clinical manifestations

Usually occurs during the day, during physical activity. Suddenly, the head starts to ache, there are sickening desires. Consciousness – confused, a person breathes often and with a whistle, there is a tachycardia accompanied by hemiplegia (unilateral limb paralysis) or hemiparesis (weakening of motor functions). The main reflexes are lost. The view becomes fixed (paresis), anisocoria (pupils of different sizes) or strabismus of divergent type occurs.

What is the disorder of cerebral circulation

The cerebral vessels have a unique, perfect structure that perfectly regulates blood flow, ensuring the stability of blood circulation. They are arranged in such a way that when the blood flow to the coronary vessels increases approximately 10-fold during physical activity, the amount of circulating blood in the brain, with increasing mental activity, remains at the same level. That is, there is a redistribution of blood flow. Part of the blood from the brain regions with less stress is redirected to areas with enhanced brain activity.

However, this perfect process of blood circulation is disturbed if the amount of blood entering the brain does not satisfy its need for it. It should be noted that its redistribution across the brain regions is necessary not only for its normal functionality. It occurs also in the occurrence of various pathologies, for example, stenosis of the lumen of the vessel (constriction) or obturation (closure). As a result of impaired self-regulation, the rate of movement of blood in certain parts of the brain and their ischemia slow down.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis – the defeat of the arteries, accompanied by cholesterol deposits in the inner shells of the vessels, narrowing their lumen and disrupting the supply of the blood supply to the body. Atherosclerosis of the heart vessels is manifested mainly by attacks of angina pectoris. It leads to the development of coronary heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction, cardiosclerosis, vascular aneurysms. Atherosclerosis can lead to disability and premature death.

When atherosclerosis occurs, the arteries of medium and large caliber, the elastic (large arteries, aorta) and the musculo-elastic (mixed: carotid, brain and heart arteries) types are affected. Therefore, atherosclerosis is the most common cause of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, cerebral stroke, circulatory disorders of the lower extremities, abdominal aorta, mesenteric and renal arteries.

In recent years, the incidence of atherosclerosis has reached an alarming scale, ahead of the risk of development of loss of efficiency, disability and mortality, such causes as trauma, infectious and oncological diseases. With the greatest frequency, atherosclerosis affects men older than 45-50 years (3-4 times more often than women), but occurs in younger patients.